ANTH5A final exam study

admin / January 18, 2018
Question Answer
Mesolithic term for technologies/cultures in the old world between the end of the Pleistocene and a dependence on domesticated crops and animals.
Archaic term for cultures in the new world between the end of the Pleistocene and reliance on domesticates.
Domestication a change in the physical characteristics of the plant or animal involved as the result of human selection.
What percentage of the human past was spent as hunter/gatherers? 99.8%
What social changes came about as the result of domestication? settlements become larger and more permanent, land ownership and inequality in the distribution of resources
Hierarchy some individuals/groups have institutionalized power over others.
Ascribed Status status is from birth, not acquired in life
What were the important domesticates of the old world? wheat, barley, pigs, goats, sheep, and (rice in Asia).
What were the important domesticates of the new world? corn, beans and squash (the 3 sisters); also potatoes and llamas/alpacas in South America.
The Oasis Hypothesis glacial periods were cold/wet, post-glacial periods were warmer/drier. In an already dry environment, habitable areas must have been reduced to oases. In order to successfully compete, people had to control/domesticate plants and animals
The Natural Habitat Hypothesis domestication took place where people encountered the wild ancestors of domesticated plants and animals. "Hilly Flanks"
The Population Pressure/"Edge" Hypothesis farming/agriculture was needed to provide enough food for the increased population. Domestication came about in areas with less wild plants/animals in order to sustain the population
The Social Hypothesis farming was encouraged because it allows some people to accumulate surplus food stores that can be converted to valuable objects or labor.
Neolithic old world term for the technological period beginning with domestication prior to the smelting of metals.
How have Homo Sapiens changed over the past 10,000 to 20,000 years or so? subtle ways include declined cranial capacity and smaller teeth.

the major changes have been cultural, specifically the invention of agriculture.

What are the three types of characteristics of human biological diversity that we encounter and what are some examples of each? Physical = skin color, hair color, hair form.

Observed = teeth, fingerprints.

Molecular variation = genetics.

Variation the differences that exist among people and populations
antibody a substance that reacts to other substances invading the body (antigens).
antigen a substance invading the body that stimulates the production of antibodies.
Electrophoresis a laboratory method that uses electic current to separate proteins, allowing genotype to be determined.
HLA (human leukocyte antigen) System a diverse genetic system consisting of linked loci on chromosome 6 that control autoimmune response
RFLP (restriction fragment length polymorphism) a genetic trait defined in terms of the length of DNA fragments produced when certain enzymes cut the DNA sequence. These reveal that there is typically a greater diversity within, then between, races.
Microsattelite DNA repeated short sequence of DNA, with the number of repeats highly variable.
Alu Insertion a sequence of DNA repeated at different locations on different chromosomes. They are used to determine if two populations are related to each other.
SNPs (single-nucleotide polymorphisms) specific positions in a DNA sequence that differ at one base
Haplotype a combination of gene or DNA sequences that are inherited as a single unit
Haplogroup a set of related haplotypes that share similar mutations. May be used to define a population
Anthropometrics measurements of the human body, skull, and face
Odontometrics measurements of the size of teeth
Dermatoglyphics measurements of finger and palm prints, including type classification and ridge counts
Polytypic has local populations that differ in one or more traits (humans). Exhibit wide genotypic and phenotypic variation between individuals in one population. This variation is typically distributed as a CLINE.
Cline gradual changes in the frequency (percentages) of an allele or feature across space (geographically). Clinal patterns vary from trait to trait, they do no co-vary.
Race a vague term that essentially refers to group membership according to biological and cultural meanings
Biological Race a group of populations sharing certain biological traits that distinguish them from other groups of populations
Continuous Variation no naturally occuring distinct groups. Examples with human populations include race and height
Monogeny belief that all humans share one set of ancestors
Polygeny belief that human races are separate species with separate origins.
Linnaeus first to classify humans in the same typology as other organisms. He divided homo sapiens according to physical, cultural, and temperamental characteristics: H. europeaus, H. americanus, H. asiaticus, and H. afer
Buffon viewed the human species as SINGULAR, and noted the influence of the environment on organisms. He coined the term "race" to describe different types of humans.
Blumenbach's Racial Typology (1781) mainly based on skin color but also on other traits. Recognized that most of these traits exhibited continuous variation and began to look for traits that were unique to certain groups, but were fixed and particular to certain races, such as skull shape.
Franz Boas (the Father of American Anthropology) pioneered one of the first studies of human plasticity in 1912-1913, where he demonstrated that culture or environment had as much or more than inheritance to do with phenotypic traits like skull size
Genetic Distance an average measure of relatedness between populations based on a number of traits. Used to model the effects of genetic drift vs. gene flow. Must use traits that are not selected for.
Genetic Distance Map a graphic representation that shows the genetic relationships between populations, based on geentic distance measures.
Isolation by Distance a model that predicts that the genetic distance between populations will increase as the geographic distance between them increases.
The Origin of Native Americans traveled across a land bridge from Asia (evidence shows shovel-shaped incisors). Based on patterns of diversity in DNA markers, Native Americans came from a single source of ancestors in Siberia, and it is unknown how many migrations occurred.
The Origin of the Population of Ireland evidence (east-west coast size gradient)/known history show that the people of England/Wales migrated to the island of Ireland. There are distinct differences among the populations of middle Ireland that are explained by the genetic impact of the Vikings.
The Origin of African Americans gene flow from Europeans (white slaveowners fathering AA kids), allele freq. in AA tend to be between Europeans and Africans, but closer to Africans. Different AA populations (SC vs New Orleans) have different levels of Euro and African allele frequencies
Sickle Cell Anemia a genetic disease that occurs in a person homozygous for the sickle cell allele. If the person is heterozygous, they are not affected and have an increased resistance to malaria. Balancing selection for the heterozygote
Infectious Disease a disease caused by the introduction of an organic foreign substance into the body. (ex: Malaria)
Noninfectious Disease a disease caused by factors other than the introduction of an organic foreign substance into the body.
The CCR5 Gene this allele has been found in moderate freq. in Europeans, but is absent in Africans, East Asians, and Native Americans. This mutation has been linked to HIV resistance. It was likely selected for by some previous infectious disease.
The Evolution of Skin Color dark skin = protect against sunburn/skin cancer, result of loss of body hair/promotion of sweat glands
light skin = protect against folate deficiency and absorbs more vitamin D
Horticulture a form of farming which uses only simple hand tools
Lactase Persistence the ability to produce the enzyme lactase after age 5 (LCT*P allele)
Lactose Intolerance a condition causing diarrhea/craps/other intestinal problems resulting from the ingestion of milk. This is less common among populations that practice dairy farming
Stress any factor that interferes with the normal limits of operation of an organism
Homeostatis in a physiological sense, the maintenance of normal limits of body functioning. (i.e. if it is hot, you sweat to maintain homeostasis)
Acclimation short-term physiological response to stress, usually within minutes or hours. Ex: vasoconstriction, vasodilation, sweating, increased breathing rate, increased heart rate
Acclimatization long-term physiological responses to a stress, usually taking days to months. Ex; increase in red blood cell production after moving to a high altitude, increased pressure in pulmonary arteries
Developmental Acclimatization changes in organ or body structure that occurs during the physical growth of any organism. Ex: increased lung size when a person grows up at a high altitude, increased heart size, more efficient at oxygen diffusion from blood to tissues
Plasticity the ability of an organism to respond physiologically or developmentally to an environmental stress.
Vasoconstriction the narrowing of blood vessels, which reduces blood flow and heat loss
Vasodilation the opening of blood vessels, which increases blood flow and heat loss
The Lewis Hunting Phenonmenon if you put your finger in ice water, intially vasoconstriction occurs (decreased skin temp), then vasoconstriction occurs (increased skin temp). This cycle continues over time, becoming more frequent and less extreme, providing more efficient adaptation
Bergmann's Rule among mammals of similar shape, larger mammals lose heat slower than smaller mammals; and among mammals of similar size, more linear mammals lose heat faster. Therefore, larger mammals are more adapted to cold climates and smaller mammals to warm climates
Allen's Rule mammals in cold climates will have shorter, bulkier limbs while mammals in warm climates will have narrower, longer limbs (ex: Inuit vs. Masai people)
Cephalic Index a measure of cranial shape, defined as max width of the skull divided by the max length of the skill. (Andre Retzius, 1842)
Nasal Index a measurement of the shape of the nasal opening, defined as the width of the nasal opening divided by the height.
Cultural Adaptations ex: wearing more clothing/different types of clothing in colder climates; shelter design to reduce wind exposure, etc
What are the effects form the local environment that influence human variation temperature and humidity, solar radiation, altitude, nutrition, and disease
Hypoxia oxygen starvation, which occurs frequently at high altitudes.
Malnutrition poor nutrition, from either too much or too little food, or from the improper balance of nutrients
Kwashiorkor an extreme form of protein-calorie malnutrition resulting from a severe deficiency in proteins but NOT calories
Marasmus an extreme form of protein-calorie malnutrition resulting from severe deficiency in both proteins and calories.
Sedentary settled in one place throughout most of the year
Bioarchaeology the study of human skeletal remains from archaeology sites. Used to provide info on the health/lifestyle of prehistoric people (determines age at death, cause of death, nutritional status, growth patterns, and trauma)
Carrying Capacity the maximum population size capable of being supported in a given environment. Indicates the relationship between population size and agriculture.
Natural Increase the number of births minus the number of deaths
Life Expectancy at Birth a measure of the average length of life for a newborn child (derived via a life table)
Life Table a compilation of the age distribution of a population that provides an estimate of the probablity that an individual will die by a certain age. Used to compute life expectancy.
Zoonose a disease transmitted directly to humans from other animals (common among hunter/gatherers)
Epidemic a pattern of disease rates when new cases of a disease spread rapidly though a population
Endemic a pattern of disease rates when new cases of a disease occur at a relatively constant but low rate over time
Other Causes of Death (besides disease) among Hunter/Gatherers injury deaths (drowning, cold exposure, burns, heat stress, hunting injuries), and childbirth
Civilization a large, state-level society characterized by large population size, high population density, urbanzation, social stratification, food and labor surpluses, monumental architecture, and record keeping.
Pandemic a widespread epidemic that affects a large geographic area, such as continent (i.e. the Bubonic Plague)
Osteology of Individuals can determine age, sex, stature, ancestry, antemortem and perimortem pathology
Osteology of Populations paleoepidemiology (ancient health/illness from a population perspective), paleodiet, warfare/interpersonal violence, cultural behaviors (ex: body modification), and population genetics
Epidemiologic Transition the increase in life expectancy and the shift from infectious to noninfectious disease as the primary cause of death
MDC more developed country
LDC less developed country
Secular Change a change in the average pattern of growth of development in a population over several generations. Examples include increase in height/weight, decrease in the age of sexual maturation.
Age at Menarche age at which a female has her first menstrual period
Emergent Infectious Disease a newly identified infectious disease that has recently evolved. Examples include Legionnaire's Disease, Korean Hemorrhagic Fever, Hantavirus, and HIV.
Reemergent Infectious Disease infectious disease that had preciously been reduced but that increases in frequency when microorganisms evolve resistance to antibiotics. An example is Tuberculosis.
Demographic Transition Theory a model of demographic change that states that as a population becomes economically developed, a reduction in death rates (population growth) will take place, followed by a reduction in birth rates.
Age-Sex Structure the number of males and females in different age groups of a population
Population Pyramid a diagram of the age-sex structure of a population, normally in 5 year intervals
Dolni Vestonice, Czech Republic 25,000 years ago, made fired ceramic figurines
Lake Mungo, Australia 40,000-68,000 years ago, had boat technology
Meadowcroft Shelter, Pennsylvania, USA 18,000 years ago, indicated that the peopling of the Americas took place earlier than originally thought.
Monte Verde, Chile 18,000 years ago
Jericho 8,000 BC, earliest known monumental architecture (Tower of Jericho), occupied during Mesolithic and Neolithic periods, ritual used of skulls indicates possible ancestor worship
'Ain Mallaha 11,000-9,000 BC, one of the earliest known villages, Mesolithic site
Abu Hureya, Syria 10,500-6,000 BC, bridges the gap between Mesolithic and Neolithic
Catalhoyuk, Turkey 7,000-6,000 BC; Neolithic; evidence of ritual activities such as figurines, burials, and shrine buildings; evidence of long distance trade (obsidian)
Mehrgarh, Pakistan 7,000-2,500 BC
Ban Po Ts'un, China 5,000, 2,500 BC
Guila Naquiz Cave, Mexico 8,750-6,670 BC, seasonal occupation which contrasts with Mesolithic settled hunter/gatherers
Tehuacan Valley, Turkey 5,000 BC
Kennewick Man ancient skeleton found that is likely Native American, but has traits consistent with modern Caucasians

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