college intro class psych

admin / February 18, 2018
Question Answer
altruistic behavior accepting some cost or risk to help others
prisoner's dilemma a situation where people choose between a cooperative act and a competitive act that benefits themselves but hurts others
diffusion of responsibility we tend to fell less responsibility to act when other people are equally able to act
Three ways of knowing magic, religion, and science
what is the scientific approach? science is a way of acquiring knowledge, knowledge is acquired based on evidence (public, repeatable), make hypothesis and prediction, science is self-correcting
Goals of psychology observe and describe behavior, understand behavior (causes), predict behavior, control or modify behavior
Asch conformity test
kitty genovese bystander intervention, diffusion of responsibility
Levine and Crowther diffusion of responsibility tests, friends vs strangers helping people, gender and helping
diffusion of responsibility we tend to feel less responsibility to act when other people are equally able to act
Triplett social facilitation
social facilitation the facilitation or speeding of behavior when in the presence of others also engaged in the behavior
Milgram obedience
Watson and Rayner Little Albert, classical condition of emotional responses
unconditioned stimulus unlearned stimulus, instinct, what it already knows
unconditioned response unlearned response, instinct
conditioned stimulus learned stimulus
conditioned response a new association between stimuli has occurred, learned
What is the scientific approach? Science is a way of acquiring knowledge, knowledge is acquired from tangible evidence, must be public and repeatable, make hypothesis and prediction, science is self-correcting
How to solve the big problems in our world? Human behavior is at the heart to all of the solutions to these problems, psychology, The major problems facing the world today can be solved only if we improve our understanding of human behavior
what psychologists have in common behavior is regular and predictable, the determinants of behavior can be identified, behavior is influenced by culture and language, behavior is influenced by genetics and physiology
five ancient questions nature/nurture, development/situation causes, are humans merely animals, mind vs brain, free will vs determinism
nature vs nurture
development/situation causes how you behave in a certain situation and why you behave in that manner, we behave in that manner because of our upbringing or development
are humans merely animals according to psychologists we are merely animals because he are physically composed, we use animals specifically ones fit for a certain experiment to study human behavior
mind vs brain Is our behavior generated by the brain or by something we call the mind which is a separate entity from our bodies, since we cannot measure the mind we have to rely on the brain for our behaviors, brain is physically real
free will vs determinism
dependent variable the outcome of an experiment, the thing that you measure in an experiment, variable of interest, dependent because it is effected by the independent variable
independent variable free variable, can me manipulated
what is social psychology the influence of the social part of the environment
factors influencing bystander intervention number of bystanders, is the situation ambiguous, how much risk, are bystanders in a hurry
bystander intervention situation where a bystander/observer (a person who is present at an event or incident but does not take part) intervenes
conformity when people match or change their behavior to match the behavior of others
factors influencing conformity cohesiveness of group, number of confederates, task difficulty and ambiguity, perceived competence of group members, public vs. private responses
obedience behavior performed in following an order from someone in a position of authority
What environmental factors influence obedience? voice feedback vs. not, same room vs. different room, touching vs. not touching, introduction, learner was nice or rude
An attribution is the set of thought processes we use to assign causes to our own behavior and the behavior of others
person perception We form first impressions of people and guesses about their personality and the causes behind that (unconsciously)
Internal (personal) attributions explanations based on someone’s stable character, traits, and abilities
External (situational) attributions explanations based on the situation; environmental stimuli
Dutton and Aron person perception test, men cross bridge and are asked by a woman to create a story from an ambiguous picture
learning is the change in behavior or the potential for behavior, tat occurs as a result of environmental experience, it is not the result of fatigue, injury (permanently injured) or drugs

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