Psychology (Zimbardo, Weber, Johnson) Ch.1

admin / February 14, 2018
Question Answer
Psychology defined is: the science of behavior and mental processes.
Psychologists, like all other scientists, use the: scientific method.
Psychologists, like all other scientists, use the scientific method to: test ideas empirically.
Psychology is a science that seeks to: describe, explain, predict, and control individual behavior and mental processes.
Psychologists draw on what main perspectives? Cognitive, behavioral, psychodynamic, humanistic, biological, and sociocultural.
Psychology's six main view points are the cognitive, behavioral, psychodynamic, humanistic, biological, and sociocultural perspecteves.
What is psychology? the scientific study of mind and behavior.
How do psychologists look at behavior and mental processes? The biological view, cognitive view, psychodynamic view, humanistic view, behavioral view, and sociocultural view.
How do psychologists research? They use the scientific method to test ideas empirically.
What are the goals of psychology? Its goals are to describe, explain, predict, and control individual behavior and mental processes.
A scientific study should begin with a hypothesis/problem.
What should a scientific experiment begin with? It must begin with a hypothesis/problem.
The conditions involving the independent variable could also be thought of as the: stimuli.
Random assignment of subjects to different experimental conditions can control for differences between: the experimental and control groups.
The only form of research that can determine cause and effect is: an experiment / experimental study.
What form of research can determine cause and effect? An experimental study.
In what kind of research does a scientist have most control over variables that might affect the outcome of the study? In an experimental study.
Unlike religion, art, and humanities, a science involves testing its theories against: firsthand observations.
Examples of pseudopsychology are: ESP, Handwriting analysis, fortune telling, ect…
Basic psychologists work: in expanding knowledge.
Basic psychologists are: the teachers, researchers doing the experimenting, and/or publishing results.
Applied psychologists work: with people – in the real world – solving problems.
Examples of applied psychologists are: I/O (industrial and organizational) psychologists, sports psychologists, clinical and counseling psychologists, rehabilitation psychologists, engineering psychologists, school psychologists, …
Applied psychologists use the knowledge developed by whom, to what? Applied psychologists use knowledge developed by experimental or basic psychologists to tackle human/everyday problems.
Emotional bias is the tendency to make judgments based on personal attitude or opinions, rather than rational analysis of data.
Who is considered the father of scientific psychology? Wundt.
Virtually all psychiatrists, but only some psychologists treat: mental disorders.
Psychiatry is what kind of specialty? Medical.
What type of degree do psychiatrists hold? MD (Medicinae Doctor / Doctor of Medicine).
What type of degree do psychologists hold? PhD, PsyD, or such.
What's pseudopsychology? False or unsubstantiated assertions or practices set forth as being scientific psychology.
Define psychiatry. A medical specialty dealing with diagnosis and treatment of mental illness.
Define confirmation bias. The tendency to note only evidence that confirms your beliefs or expectations, while neglecting evidence that doesn't.
What year did the 'father of psychology' found the first formal laboratory devoted to experimental psychology? His name? 1879. William Wundt.
How is bias overcome in relation to experiments? Replication of data/results.
The scientific method is a way of putting what to what kind of test? Ideas; an objective pass-fail test.
Modern psychology's scope is broader than the Greek concept of 'psyche' how? It studies behavior as well as the mind.
An "operational definition" can be (blank) objectively. observed.
Movies are an example of what kind of illusion? Optical.
Our eyes have (blank), but our (blank) fills in the holes. blind spots; brain
The three main steps of the scientific method are the hypothesis (which is the cause & effect between thought and behavior), the testing (experiment, data collection, & analysis), and the conclusion (accept/regect hypothesis).
Empirical investigation relies on data (sensory experience & observation), not hunches
Define 'operational definition'. Objective descriptions of concepts involved in a scientific study.
Research studies that take place over a long period of time are known as longitudinal research.
Positive correlation means that as one variable increases the other one does too.
Negative correlation means that as one variable increases the other one decreases.
The five psychological methods / types of psychological research: naturalistic observation, case study, correlational study, survey, & experiment.
Which is the only scientific psychological method / research? Experiment.
The other psychological methods are (blank) and nonscientific. passive
Which of the five psychological methods are passive/nonscientific? Naturalistic observation, survey, correlational study (adds prediction), case study (Experiment is scientific).
Experiment is scientific because of manipulation & control.
Structuralism – (Wundt) What's mind & it's structure? Introspection.
Functionalism – (James) How does your brain help you function?
Psychoanalytical/psychodynamic – (Freud) the unconcious.
Humanistic – born good/innocent, free will/choice, personal meaning, existentialism.
Behaviorism – (Watson) focuses on behavior, ignores mental process.
Cognitive – re-emphasis on mental processing because of imergence of brain scan technology.
Gestalt – German word 'whole'. Big picture. "The whole(perception) is greater than the sum of it's parts." Brain perception.
The 7 Old Schools / early schools of psychology? Structuralism(Wundt), functionalism(James), psychoanalytical/psychodynamic(Freud), humanistic, behaviorism(Watson), cognitive, & gestalt.
Our DNA is exactly how alike to chimps? 98.4%
Humans differ from each other in DNA by only 0.1%
Independent variable- (manipulate) cause. Have at least a control group & experimental group.
Dependent variable- (measure) supposed effect.
Double-blind study: to avoid expectancy bias, the researchers are kept in the dark as well as the subjects.
Single-blind study: the subjects are kept in the dark.
Evolution- change over time.
Modern evolutionary psychology- we are who we are today because of the more adaptable past humans.
Chromosomes- the overall genetic unit (appearance KX).
DNA- splice/segment of chromosome (the double helix).
Genes- piece of DNA responsible for a specific chemical (protien or enzyme).
Humans have about how many genes? 30,000
Humans have how many chromosomes? 46
Humans have how many pairs of chromosomes? 23
The 5 parts of a neuron: dentrite, soma(cell body w/ nucleus inside), axon, myelin sheat(fat coating), terminal buttons.
5 important neurotransmitters: Seratonin(lack causes depression), Dopamine(excess causes paranoia-cocaine), Epinephrine(adrenaline/fightorflight), Norepinephrine(calms/slows), Endorphine(body natural morphine).
Nerves or nerve pathways are bundles of many neurons.
Plasticity is the brains ability to change/repair itself due to experience or damage.
Reflexes are unconcious, involuntary responses.
Endocrine system is basically our glands, which secrete hormones, which are chemicals, which are either inhibitory or excitatory.
3 Important glands: 1.) adrenal (epinephrine "fightorflight"), 2.) testies/ovaries (sex hormones, testosterone = agression, sex drive, hair growth), 3.) pituitary (sends signal from hypothalamus to all other glands).
3 major types of Complex Learning: Classical (Pavlov), Operant (Skinner), Observational (Bandura).
2 major types of Primitive Learning: habituation, mere exposure.
2 basic types of Synapses: classical conditioning (CS+US like thunder & lightning), operant (if-then, punishment & reinforcement).

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